# Simple Genetic Algorithm From Scratch in Python

The genetic algorithm is a stochastic global optimization algorithm. It may be one of the most popular and widely known biologically inspired algorithms, along with artificial neural networks. The algorithm is a type of evolutionary algorithm and performs an optimization procedure inspired by the biological theory of evolution by means of natural selection with a binary representation and simple operators based on genetic recombination and genetic mutations. In this tutorial, you will discover the genetic algorithm optimization algorithm. After completing […]

# Differential Evolution Global Optimization With Python

Differential Evolution is a global optimization algorithm. It is a type of evolutionary algorithm and is related to other evolutionary algorithms such as the genetic algorithm. Unlike the genetic algorithm, it was specifically designed to operate upon vectors of real-valued numbers instead of bitstrings. Also unlike the genetic algorithm it uses vector operations like vector subtraction and addition to navigate the search space instead of genetics-inspired transforms. In this tutorial, you will discover the Differential Evolution global optimization algorithm. After […]

# Evolution Strategies From Scratch in Python

Evolution strategies is a stochastic global optimization algorithm. It is an evolutionary algorithm related to others, such as the genetic algorithm, although it is designed specifically for continuous function optimization. In this tutorial, you will discover how to implement the evolution strategies optimization algorithm. After completing this tutorial, you will know: Evolution Strategies is a stochastic global optimization algorithm inspired by the biological theory of evolution by natural selection. There is a standard terminology for Evolution Strategies and two common […]

# Code Adam Optimization Algorithm From Scratch

Last Updated on February 21, 2021 Gradient descent is an optimization algorithm that follows the negative gradient of an objective function in order to locate the minimum of the function. A limitation of gradient descent is that a single step size (learning rate) is used for all input variables. Extensions to gradient descent like AdaGrad and RMSProp update the algorithm to use a separate step size for each input variable but may result in a step size that rapidly decreases […]

# Simulated Annealing From Scratch in Python

Simulated Annealing is a stochastic global search optimization algorithm. This means that it makes use of randomness as part of the search process. This makes the algorithm appropriate for nonlinear objective functions where other local search algorithms do not operate well. Like the stochastic hill climbing local search algorithm, it modifies a single solution and searches the relatively local area of the search space until the local optima is located. Unlike the hill climbing algorithm, it may accept worse solutions […]

# No Free Lunch Theorem for Machine Learning

The No Free Lunch Theorem is often thrown around in the field of optimization and machine learning, often with little understanding of what it means or implies. The theorem states that all optimization algorithms perform equally well when their performance is averaged across all possible problems. It implies that there is no single best optimization algorithm. Because of the close relationship between optimization, search, and machine learning, it also implies that there is no single best machine learning algorithm for […]

# A Gentle Introduction to Stochastic Optimization Algorithms

Stochastic optimization refers to the use of randomness in the objective function or in the optimization algorithm. Challenging optimization algorithms, such as high-dimensional nonlinear objective problems, may contain multiple local optima in which deterministic optimization algorithms may get stuck. Stochastic optimization algorithms provide an alternative approach that permits less optimal local decisions to be made within the search procedure that may increase the probability of the procedure locating the global optima of the objective function. In this tutorial, you will […]

# How to Use Optimization Algorithms to Manually Fit Regression Models

Regression models are fit on training data using linear regression and local search optimization algorithms. Models like linear regression and logistic regression are trained by least squares optimization, and this is the most efficient approach to finding coefficients that minimize error for these models. Nevertheless, it is possible to use alternate optimization algorithms to fit a regression model to a training dataset. This can be a useful exercise to learn more about how regression functions and the central nature of […]