Python tutorials

Python’s Requests Library (Guide)

Watch Now This tutorial has a related video course created by the Real Python team. Watch it together with the written tutorial to deepen your understanding: Making HTTP Requests With Python The Requests library is the de facto standard for making HTTP requests in Python. It abstracts the complexities of making requests behind a beautiful, simple API so that you can focus on interacting with services and consuming data in your application. Throughout this tutorial, you’ll see some of the […]

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Python Basics Exercises: Installing Packages With pip

So far on the Python Basics learning path, you’ve been working within the bounds of the Python standard library. Now it’s time to unlock packages that aren’t included with Python by default. To do that, you’ll need pip. Many programming languages offer a package manager that automates the process of installing, upgrading, and removing third-party packages. Python is no exception. The de facto package manager for Python is called pip. In this Python Basics Exercises course, you’ll test and reinforce […]

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Duck Typing in Python: Writing Flexible and Decoupled Code

Python makes extensive use of a type system known as duck typing. The system is based on objects’ behaviors and interfaces. Many built-in classes and tools support this type system, which makes them pretty flexible and decoupled. Duck typing is a core concept in Python. Learning about the topic will help you understand how the language works and, more importantly, how to use this approach in your own code. In this tutorial, you’ll learn: What duck typing is and what […]

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What can you do about climate change?

Climate change is impacting the whole planet, and getting worse every year. So you want to do something—but you’re not sure what. If you do some research you might encounter an essay by Bret Victor—What can a technologist do about climate change? There’s a whole pile of good ideas in there, and it’s worth reading, but the short version is that you can use technology to “create options for policy-makers.” And working on clean energy or efficiency is definitely a […]

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How to Read User Input From the Keyboard in Python

You may often want to make your Python programs more interactive by responding dynamically to input from the user. Learning how to read user input from the keyboard unlocks exciting possibilities and can make your code far more useful. The ability to gather input from the keyboard with Python allows you to build programs that can respond uniquely based on the preferences, decisions, or data provided by different users. By fetching input and assigning it to variables, your code can […]

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Unleashing the Power of the Console With Rich

Python’s Rich package is a versatile tool kit that enables you to generate beautifully formatted and highlighted text in the console. It extends beyond this to help you build captivating text-based user interfaces (TUIs). But why opt for a TUI instead of a graphical user interface (GUI)? There are instances where a text interface feels more fitting. Why employ a complex GUI for a simple application when an elegant text interface suffices? Working with plain text can be refreshing. It […]

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Not just NVIDIA: GPU programming that runs everywhere

If you’re doing computations on a GPU, NVIDIA is the default, alongside its CUDA libraries. Some libraries like PyTorch support do support AMD GPUs and Macs. But from the re-implementations of NumPy, SciPy, and Pandas in the RAPIDS project, to Numba’s GPU support, NVIDIA has best software support in the Python world. Sticking to NVIDIA-specific software has some downsides, however: It won’t run on modern Mac laptops. Testing in CI is more difficult: you need custom runners that have NVIDIA […]

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BNF Notation: Dive Deeper Into Python’s Grammar

While reading the Python documentation, you may have found fragments of BNF notation (Backus–Naur form) that look something like the following: What’s the meaning of all this strange code? How can this help you in understanding Python concepts? How can you read and interpret this notation? In this tutorial, you’ll get to know the basics of Python’s BNF notation and learn how to take advantage of it to get a deep understanding of the language’s syntax and grammar. To get […]

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Create Conway’s Game of Life With Python

Wouldn’t it be cool to build a Python game that only requires initial user input and then seems to take on a mind of its own, creating mesmerizing patterns along the way? You can do exactly that with Conway’s Game of Life, which is about the evolution of cells in a life grid. Implementing the Game of Life algorithm is a good exercise with many interesting challenges that you’ll have to figure out. Specifically, you’ll need to build the life […]

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Primer on Python Decorators

In this tutorial on Python decorators, you’ll learn what they are and how to create and use them. Decorators provide a simple syntax for calling higher-order functions. By definition, a decorator is a function that takes another function and extends the behavior of the latter function without explicitly modifying it. This sounds confusing, but it’ll make more sense after you’ve seen a few examples of how decorators work. You can find all the examples from this tutorial by downloading the […]

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